Хичээл №12: Past Perfect Continuous Tense

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Form

[had been + present participle]

Examples:

* You had been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived.

* Had you been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived?

* You had not been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived.

Use 1: Өнгөрсөнд болоод дууссан ямар нэг үйл хүртэл үргэлжилснийг заана.

Энэ цаг нь өнгөрсөнд эхлэсэн ямар нэг үйл өнгөрсөн хугацаан дахь өөр нэг үйл хүртэл үргэлжилснийг заана. “For five minutes” болон “for two weeks” хоёр нь хоёулаа үргэлжилж байгаа хугацааг заах тул энэ цаг дээр хэрэглэж болно. Тухайн үйл нь одоог хүртэл үргэлжилж байгаа биш ч гэсэн өнгөрсөн дэхь өөр нэг үйл хүртэл үргэлжилж байдаг гэдэг утгаарааг Present Perfect Continuous цагтай хамааралтай.

 

Examples:

* They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived.

* She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business.

* How long had you been waiting to get on the bus?

* Mike wanted to sit down because he had been standing all day at work.

* James had been teaching at the university for more than a year before he left for Asia.

* A: How long had you been studying Turkish before you moved to Ankara?

B: I had not been studying Turkish very long.

Use 2: Өнгөрсөнд болсон ямар нэг учир шалтгааныг заана.

Өнгөрсөн дэх өөр нэг үйлийн өмнөх учир шалтгаан, үр нөлөөг заахад хэрэглэнэ.

Examples:

* Jason was tired because he had been jogging.

* Sam gained weight because he had been overeating.

* Betty failed the final test because she had not been attending class.

Past Continuous vs. Past Perfect Continuous

Хэрвээ “for five minutes,” “for two weeks” эсхүл “since Friday,” гэх мэт үгс ороогүй тохиолдолд ихэнх хүмүүс Past Continuous Perfect цагаас илүү Past Continuous цагийг илүү хэрэглэдэг. Гэвч цагаа сонгохдоо болгоомжтой байх ёстой. Учир нь ямар цаг сонгосноосоо шалтгаалаад өгүүлбэрийн утга нь өөрчлөгддөг. Past Continuous өнгөрсөнд тасалдсан үйлийг заадаг бол Past Perfect Continuous цаг нь өнгөрсөнд болсон ямар нэгэн үйлийн өмнөх тасралтгүй үргэлжилсэн үйлийг харуулдаг. Доорх жишээнээс ялгааг нь харж болно.

If you do not include a duration such as “for five minutes,” “for two weeks” or “since Friday,” many English speakers choose to use the Past Continuous rather than the Past Perfect Continuous. Be careful because this can change the meaning of the sentence. Past Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Past Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the past. Study the examples below to understand the difference.

Examples:

* He was tired because he was exercising so hard.

Энэ өгүүлбэр яг тухайн хоромд  дасгал хийж байсан гэсэн санааг гаргаж байна.

* He was tired because he had been exercising so hard.

Энэ өгүүлбэр нь тэр тодорхой хугацааны турш дасгал хийснийг харуулж байна. Тэр тухайн мөчид дасгалаа хийсээр л байсан байж болно, эсхүл дөнгөж дуусчихаад байж байсан байж ч болно.

Санамж: Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs

Non-Continuous Verbs болон ийм утгатай Mixed Verbs үргэлжилсэн цаг дээр хэрэглэгддэггүй гэдгийг санах нь чухал. Дээрх үгнүүд орсон тохиолдолд Past Perfect Continuous цагийн оронд Past Perfect цагийг хэрэглэх ёстой.

Examples:

* The motorcycle had been belonging to George for years before Tina bought it. Not Correct

* The motorcycle had belonged to George for years before Tina bought it. Correct

Adverb буюу дайвар үгийн байршил

Дараах жишээнүүд нь always, only, never, ever, still, just, гэх мэт хэл зүйн дайвар үгнүүдийн байршлыг харууллаа.

Examples:

* You had only been waiting there for a few minutes when she arrived.

* Had you only been waiting there for a few minutes when she arrived?

Active / passive

Examples:

* Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant’s fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris. Active

* The restaurant’s fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris. Passive

Санамж: Passive voice энэ цаг дээр нэг их хэрэглэгддэггүй.

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