Хичээл №11: Pas Perfect Tense

PAST PERFECT TENSE

Form

[had + past participle]

Examples:

* You had studied English before you moved to New York.

* Had you studied English before you moved to New York?

* You had not studied English before you moved to New York.

Key words:

Already, just, yet, ever never, until, by, by the time=when

чихсан байсан, байв, байлаа, сан байв, сан байлаа

She had left by 6.10 – Тэр 6 гэхэд явчихсан байсан.

By what time had she left – Хэд гэхэд тэр явчихсан байсан бэ?

Who had arrived when you got there – чамайг тэнд очиход хэн явчихсан байсан бэ?

When түлхүүр үг өөр цагууд дээр өөр утга илэрхийлэх тухайд

They left when (дараа гэдэг утгаар орсон) I got there – Намайг очсоны дараа тэд явсан

They had left when I got there – Намайг очиход явчихсан байсан

They were leaving when I got there – Намайг очиход тэд явж байсан

v  Энэ цаг нь өнгөрсөнд болсон үйл явдлуудын аль түрүүнд болсон үйлийг заадаг. Харин сүүлд болсон үйлийг жирийн өнгөрсөн цагаар илэрхийлдэг.

Use 1: Өнгөрсөнд болсон ямар нэг зүйлээс өмнө болоод дуусчихсан байсан үйлийг заана.

Энэ цаг нь өнгөрсөнд ямар нэгэн үйл болохоос өмнө болоод дуусчихсан өөр нэгэн үйл явдлын тухай ярихад хэрэглэгдэнэ. Мөн өнгөрсөн дэхь тодорхой цаг хугацааны өмнө болсон ямар нэгэн зүйлийг харуулахад хэрэглэгддэг.

Examples:

  • I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.
  • I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.
  • Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.
  • Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?
  • She only understood the movie because she had read the book.
  • Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.
  • We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance.
  • A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?
    B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.

Use 2: Өнгөрсөнд болсон ямар нэг үйл хүртэл үргэлжилсэн зүйлийг заана. (Non-Continuous Verbs)

Өнгөрсөнд ямар нэгэн үйл эхлээд өөр нэгэн өнгөрсөн дэх үйл хүртэл үргэлжлэхийг илэрхийлэхэд Non-Continuous Verbs болон зарим non-continuous утгатай  Mixed Verbs-ийг ашиглан тухайн санаагаа гаргадаг.

Examples:

  • We had had that car for ten years before it broke down.
  • By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.
  • They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.

Дараах үгнүүд нь Non-Continuous Verbs болон non-continuous утгатай  Mixed Verbs биш боловч дээрх тохиолдолд ашиглагддаг.

“live,” “work,” “teach,” and “study

Санамж:

Өнгөрсөнд болсон үйл явдлын цаг хугацаа нь тодорхой байвал энгийн өнгөрсөн цаг ашигладаг. Гэвч тодорхой цаг хугацаа заасан үг, хэлц байсан ч гэсэн Past Perfect цагийг ашиглаж болдог. Үүгэрээ Present Perfect цагаас ялгаатай. Гэхдээ ингэж хэрэглэхийг заавал шаарддаггүй.

Example:

  • She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

Тодруулбал,  өгүүлбэрт “before” болон “after” гэсэн үг орсон бөгөөд цаг хугацаа нь тодорхой байвал үйл явдал Past Perfect цаг дээр өрнөсөн байсан ч оронд нь Past Simple цагийг хэрэглэж болно. Мөн дээр үгнүүд нь эхлээд ямар үйл явдал өрнөснийг танд хэлээд өгчихдөг учраас Past Perfect цагийг ашигласан ч болно. Энэ шалтаанаар дараах 2 өгүүлбэр нь хоёулаа зөв юм.

Examples:

  • She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.
  • She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

Adverb буюу дайвар үгийн байршил

Дараах жишээнүүд нь always, only, never, ever, still, just, гэх мэт хэл зүйн дайвар үгнүүдийн байршлыг харууллаа.

Examples:

  • You had previously studied English before you moved to New York.
  • Had you previously studied English before you moved to New York?

Active / passive

Examples:

  • George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic’s license. Active
  • Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic’s license. Passive

PAST PERFECT TENSE

Form

[had + past participle]

Examples:

* You had studied English before you moved to New York.

* Had you studied English before you moved to New York?

* You had not studied English before you moved to New York.

Key words:

Already, just, yet, ever never, until, by, by the time=when

чихсан байсан, байв, байлаа, сан байв, сан байлаа

She had left by 6.10 – Тэр 6 гэхэд явчихсан байсан.

By what time had she left – Хэд гэхэд тэр явчихсан байсан бэ?

Who had arrived when you got there – чамайг тэнд очиход хэн явчихсан байсан бэ?

When түлхүүр үг өөр цагууд дээр өөр утга илэрхийлэх тухайд

They left when (дараа гэдэг утгаар орсон) I got there – Намайг очсоны дараа тэд явсан

They had left when I got there – Намайг очиход явчихсан байсан

They were leaving when I got there – Намайг очиход тэд явж байсан

v Энэ цаг нь өнгөрсөнд болсон үйл явдлуудын аль түрүүнд болсон үйлийг заадаг. Харин сүүлд болсон үйлийг жирийн өнгөрсөн цагаар илэрхийлдэг.

Use 1: Өнгөрсөнд болсон ямар нэг зүйлээс өмнө болоод дуусчихсан байсан үйлийг заана.

http://www.englishpage.com/images/verbs/pastperfect.gif

Энэ цаг нь өнгөрсөнд ямар нэгэн үйл болохоос өмнө болоод дуусчихсан өөр нэгэн үйл явдлын тухай ярихад хэрэглэгдэнэ. Мөн өнгөрсөн дэхь тодорхой цаг хугацааны өмнө болсон ямар нэгэн зүйлийг харуулахад хэрэглэгддэг.

Examples:

· I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.

· I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.

· Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.

· Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?

· She only understood the movie because she had read the book.

· Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.

· We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance.

· A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?
B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.

Use 2: Өнгөрсөнд болсон ямар нэг үйл хүртэл үргэлжилсэн зүйлийг заана. (Non-Continuous Verbs)

http://www.englishpage.com/images/verbs/pastperfectcontinuous.gif

Өнгөрсөнд ямар нэгэн үйл эхлээд өөр нэгэн өнгөрсөн дэх үйл хүртэл үргэлжлэхийг илэрхийлэхэд Non-Continuous Verbs болон зарим non-continuous утгатай Mixed Verbs-ийг ашиглан тухайн санаагаа гаргадаг.

Examples:

· We had had that car for ten years before it broke down.

· By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.

· They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.

Дараах үгнүүд нь Non-Continuous Verbs болон non-continuous утгатай  Mixed Verbs биш боловч дээрх тохиолдолд ашиглагддаг.

“live,” “work,” “teach,” and “study

Санамж:

Өнгөрсөнд болсон үйл явдлын цаг хугацаа нь тодорхой байвал энгийн өнгөрсөн цаг ашигладаг. Гэвч тодорхой цаг хугацаа заасан үг, хэлц байсан ч гэсэн Past Perfect цагийг ашиглаж болдог. Үүгэрээ Present Perfect цагаас ялгаатай. Гэхдээ ингэж хэрэглэхийг заавал шаарддаггүй.

http://www.englishpage.com/images/verbs/simplepastspecific.gif

Example:

· She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

Тодруулбал, өгүүлбэрт “before” болон “after” гэсэн үг орсон бөгөөд цаг хугацаа нь тодорхой байвал үйл явдал Past Perfect цаг дээр өрнөсөн байсан ч оронд нь Past Simple цагийг хэрэглэж болно. Мөн дээр үгнүүд нь эхлээд ямар үйл явдал өрнөснийг танд хэлээд өгчихдөг учраас Past Perfect цагийг ашигласан ч болно. Энэ шалтаанаар дараах 2 өгүүлбэр нь хоёулаа зөв юм.

Examples:

· She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

· She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

Adverb буюу дайвар үгийн байршил

Дараах жишээнүүд нь always, only, never, ever, still, just, гэх мэт хэл зүйн дайвар үгнүүдийн байршлыг харууллаа.

Examples:

· You had previously studied English before you moved to New York.

· Had you previously studied English before you moved to New York?

Active / passive

Examples:

· George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic’s license. Active

· Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic’s license. Passive

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