Хичээл №2: Active/passive voice товчхон

Үйл үгийн цаг үзэх зорилгын хүрээнд юуны өмнө active/passive voice буюу үйл үгийн идэвхтэй болон идэвхгүй хэлбэрийн талаар товчхон ойлголттой болох шаардлагатай байна. Active voice ойлгомжтой учраас Passive voice-ийн талаар дараа дэлгэрэнгүй орууламц

ХИЧЭЭЛ №2: ACTIVE/PASSIVE VOICE

Өгүүлбэрүүд нь идэвхитэй болон идэвхигүй хэлбэртэй байж болдог. Тэгэхээр үйл үгийн цагууд мөн адил идэвхитэй болон идэвхгүй хэлбэртэй байна гэсэн үг. Та англи хэлийг сайн сурахын тулд эдгээрийн ялгааг сайтар мэдсэн байх шаардлагатай.

Нэг. Active voice=идэвхитэй хэв

“Active voice”-д тухайн үйлийг үйлдэгч [Thing doing action] нь  өгүүлбэрийн эзэн бие буюу subject байх бөгөөд үйлэнд өртөж буй зүйл [thing receiving action] нь объект нь болдог. Ихэнх өгүүлбэр “Active voice” байдаг.

Form = хэлбэр

v  [Subject] + [verb] + [object]

Examples

The professor (subject) teaches (verb) the students (object)

John (subject) washes (verb) the dishes (object)

Хоёр. Passive voice

Passive voice буюу идэвхгүй хэв нь үйлэнд өртөж байгаа зүйл буюу тусагдахууныг онцолж ач холбогдол өгдөг. Өөрөөр хэлбэл тухайн өгүүлбэрт объект нь маш чухал буюу онцолж дурьдах шаардлагатай тохиолдолд Passive voice хэрэглэх нь зөв юм. Иймээс тусагдахууныг өгүүлбэрийн эхэнд ярьж бичдэг. Үүнийг хуурамч эзэн бие буюу шилжигч хэмээн нэрлэх нь бий. Харин үйлийг үйлдэгчийг өгүүлбэрт заавал дурьдах албагүй. Хэрэв дурьдах шаардлагатай гэж үзвэл өгүүлбэрийн төгсгөлд бичнэ. Ингэхдээ “by” угтвар ашиглана.

Үйлийг үйлдэгчийг мэдэхгүй эсхүл дурьдахыг хүсэхгүй байгаа тохиолдолд Passive voice хэрэглэж болно.

Form

v  [Object] + [be] + [Verb + ed/PP II] + [by] + [subject]

Examples

The students (object) are thought (PP II) by the professor (subject)

The dishes (object) are washed (Passive verb) by John (subject)

Active / Passive Overview

Active Passive
Simple Present
Once a week, Tom cleans the house.
Once a week, the house is cleaned by Tom.
Present Continuous
Right now, Sarah is writing the letter.
Right now, the letter is being written by Sarah.
Simple Past
Sam repaired the car.
The car was repaired by Sam.
Past Continuous
The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store.
The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store.
Present Perfect
Many tourists have visited that castle.
That castle has been visited by many tourists.
Present Perfect Continuous
Recently, John has been doing the work.
Recently, the work has been being done by John.
Past Perfect
George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic’s license.
Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic’s license.
Past Perfect Continuous
Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant’s fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris.
The restaurant’s fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris.
Simple Future
will
Someone will finish the work by 5:00 PM.
The work will be finished by 5:00 PM.
Simple Future
be going to
Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight.
Future Continuous
will
At 8:00 PM tonight, John will be washing the dishes.
At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by John.
Future Continuous
be going to
At 8:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes.
At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John.
Future Perfect
will
They will have completed the project before the deadline.
The project will have been completed before the deadline.
Future Perfect
be going to
They are going to have completed the project before the deadline.
The project is going to have been completed before the deadline.
Future Perfect Continuous
will
The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.
The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
Future Perfect Continuous
be going to
The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.
The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
Used to
Jerry used to pay the bills.
The bills used to be paid by Jerry.
Would Always
My mother would always make the pies.
The pies would always be made by my mother.
Future in the Past
Would
I knew John would finish the work by 5:00 PM.
I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 PM.
Future in the Past
Was Going to
I thought Sally was going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be made by Sally tonight.

One Response to “Хичээл №2: Active/passive voice товчхон”

  1. loffkpop Says:

    eneniihee mgl orchuulgiig ni bicheed ugj bolhuu


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